动态内存分配 - shawpinlee

动态内存分配

shawpinlee posted @ 2007年9月14日 22:00 in C/C++ , 1663 阅读

在内存受限的独立实现中,编程人员可以使用malloc和其他内存分配函数直接控制可以分配的内存量。这种内存通常称为“堆”。

#include <stdlib.h>

void *malloc(size_t size);
void *calloc(size_t n, size_t object_size);
void *realloc(void *ptr, size_t size);
void free(void *pt);

C在标准库中提供了用于动态内存分配的calloc()(连续分配)和malloc()(内存分配)。它们的函数原型是在stdlib.h中。与其在程序中用特定常量指定数组的尺寸,不如让用户输出数组的尺寸或通过计算获得数组的尺寸。下面是一种函数调用的形式:

calloc(n, object_size)

它返回一个指向足以存储n个对象的内存空间的指针,每个对象需要object_size个字节。n和object_size都是正的。如果系统不能分配出所需要的空间,返回的指针值为NULL。

在ANSI C中,在stdlib.h中用typedef给定了类型size_t。通常该类型是无符号的。但它随着系统的不同而不同。在calloc()和malloc()的函数原型中要使用这个类型定义:

void   *calloc(size_t, size_t);

void   *malloc(size_t);

因为返回的指针的类型是void*,所以不用类型转换就可把它赋值给其他指针。由calloc()分配的存储空间被自动地初始化为0,而由malloc()分配的存储空间没有被初始化,因为其开始的值是无用的。        

 

  1. #include <stdio.h>
  2. #include <stdlib.h>
  3. #include <stdbool.h>
  4.  
  5. int *init (int);
  6. bool release (int *);
  7. void prn_mem (int *, int);
  8.  
  9. int
  10. main (int argc, char *argv[])
  11. {
  12.   int *array;
  13.   int i;
  14.   array = init (10);
  15.   for (i = 0; i < 10; i++)
  16.     array[i] = i;
  17.   prn_mem (array, 10);
  18.   release (array);
  19.   return 0;
  20. }
  21.  
  22. /*
  23. * Allocate memory block, and
  24. * return pointer to the block.
  25. *
  26. * */
  27. int *
  28. init (int n)
  29. {
  30.   int *p = (int *) malloc (sizeof (int) * n);
  31.   if (p == NULL)
  32.     fprintf (stderr, "%s\n", __func__);
  33.   return p;
  34. }
  35.  
  36. /*
  37. * Release the memory block
  38. *
  39. * */
  40. bool
  41. release (int *p)
  42. {
  43.   if (p != NULL)
  44.     {
  45.       free (p);
  46.       return true;
  47.     }
  48.   return false;
  49. }
  50.  
  51. void
  52. prn_mem (int *array, int size)
  53. {
  54.   int i;
  55.   printf ("%d", array[0]);
  56.   for (i = 1; i < 10; i++)
  57.     printf (" %d", array[i]);
  58.   printf ("\n");
  59. }
  60.  

#include <stdlib.h>

void *malloc(size_t size);

malloc函数分配足够大的内存区来存储长度 (用sizeof运算符计算)为size的对象,返回这个区域中第一个元素的指针,并保证对任何数据类型正确对齐。调用者可以用类型转换运算符将这个指针转换成另一个指针类型。如果由于某种原因无法进行请求的分配,则返回NULL指针。如果请求的长度为0,则标准C语言函数返回一个NULL指针或不能用于访问对象的非NULL指针。分配的内存不进行任何初始化,因此调用者无法依赖于其内容。由于通过malloc分配的区域要保证对任何数据类型正确对齐,因此每个区域实际占用的内存块是对齐长度的为数,通常为4个或8个字节。在传统C语言中,malloc的返回类型为char*,隐式转换可能产生警告信息。

  1. #include <stdio.h>
  2. #include <stdlib.h>
  3. #include <stdbool.h>
  4.  
  5. #define SIZE 10
  6.  
  7. int *init(int);
  8. bool release(int*);
  9. void prn_array(int*,int);
  10.  
  11. int main(int argc, char* argv[])
  12. {
  13.         int *array;
  14.         array = init(SIZE);     
  15.         prn_array(array,SIZE);
  16.         release(array);
  17.         return 0;
  18. }
  19.  
  20. int     *init(int n)
  21. {
  22.         int *array;
  23.  
  24.         array = (int*)calloc(n, sizeof(int));
  25.         if(array == NULL)
  26.                 fprintf(stderr,"%s\n",__func__);
  27.         return array;
  28. }
  29.  
  30. bool release(int *array)
  31. {
  32.         if(array != NULL)
  33.         {
  34.                 free(array);
  35.                 return true;
  36.         }
  37.         return false;
  38. }
  39.  
  40. void prn_array(int *array, int n)
  41. {
  42.         int i;
  43.         printf("%d",array[0]);
  44.         for(i=1;i<n;i++)
  45.                 printf(" %d",array[i]);
  46.         printf("\n");
  47. }
  48.  
  49.  
  50.  

函数calloc分配的内存区域按位清0,被初始化为0。

调用free(array)释放由malloc()分配的空间,从而把释放的空间换给系统。在这个小程序中这是不必要的,因为当程序退出时会释放空间。在stdlib.h中给出了free()的函数原型:
void free(void *ptr)
在程序运行期间,由calloc()和malloc()分配的空间一直是可用的,直到程序员显式地释放它们为止。在函数退出时,是不会释放空间的。函数free释放由malloc, calloc或realloc分配的内存区。函数free的参数应为指针,与前面由某个分配函数返回的指针相同。如果参数为NULL指针,则调用无意义。一块内存区域一经释放,就不能用于任何用途。使用这个区域中的任何指针(垂悬指针)都会产生无法无法预测的结果。同样,存储区分配依次而释放多次也会产生无法预测的结果。

当程序员使用动态内存分配时,一种常见的编程错误是忘记释放内存。在小程序中,这样做通常不存在问题。然而,如果在循环中重复地分配内存、使用内存而忘记了释放它,程序会出乎所料地失败,这是因为已没有更多的内存可供使用。

 

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